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Curriculum and Instruction

Assistant Superintendent


Curriculum Documents

Curriculum Links


High-Yield Strategy


What does that look like in the classroom?

Identifying Similarities and Differences

(yields a 45 percentile gain)

The ability to break a concept into its similar and dissimilar characteristics allows students to understand complex problems by analyzing them in a more simple way or by comparing new knowledge to prior knowledge.

T-charts, Venn diagrams, classifying, analogies, cause and effect links, compare and contrast organizers, QAR (questions/answer/relationship), Etch-a-Sketch, Frayer Model

Summarizing and Note-Taking

(yields as 34 percentile gain)

Summarizing and note-taking skills promote greater comprehension by asking students to analyze a subject to expose what’s essential and then put in their own words. Verbatim note-taking, however, is ineffective because it does not allow time to process the information. Teachers should encourage and give time for review.

Cornell notes, teacher models summarization techniques, identify key concepts, bullets, outlines, clusters, two and three column notes, gallery walk posters, quick writes, collaborative summarizing, learning log and graphic organizers, Interactive Lecture, TPTs (total participation techniques), request

Reinforcing Effort and Providing Recognition

(Yields a 29 percentile gain)

Effort and recognition speak to the attitudes and beliefs of students, and teachers must show the connection between effort and achievement. Recognition is most effective if it is contingent on the achievement of a certain standard. Intrinsic and symbolic recognition is most effective- not tangible rewards.

High expectations, student norms and non-negotiables, display finished products with rubrics, praise students’ efforts, prescriptive feedback to student, encourage students to share ideas and express their thoughts, honor learning styles, conference individually, recognition system, classroom PDSA (plan, do, study, act), PBIS, and student data notebooks

Nonlinguistic representations

(Yields a 27 percentile gain)

Research shows that knowledge is stored in two forms: linguistic and nonlinguistic (representing knowledge in a form other than words- visually, kinesthetically, smells, tastes, etc.) The more students use both forms in a classroom, the more they achieve.

Visual tools and manipulatives, choice menus, problem-solution organizers, diagrams, concept maps and webs, drawings, charts, rank order ladder, priority pyramid, consensogram, thinking maps, graphic organizers, Mind’s Eye, Etch-A-Sketch, storyboards, fold-ables, make physical models, Project based learning, pictographs, creating designs

Cooperative Learning

(yields a 27 percentile gain)

Cooperative learning yields a positive impact on overall learning. Be systematic and consistent in this approach. Clear roles and guidelines need to be established to function as a group or team.

Reader’s Theatre, Think-Pair-Share, Socratic Circle, Literature Circles, shared reading and writing, plays, science projects, debates, jigsaw, group reports, choral reading, integrate content and language through group engagement, Kagan strategies, learning stations

Setting objectives and providing feedback

(yields a 23 percentile gain)

Setting objectives can provide students with a direction for their learning. Goals should integrated throughout all parts of the lesson; not only at the beginning of a lesson. Feedback that is specific to content and student will produce positive results.

Student data notebook, embedded learning target, students personalize learning objective, articulating, displaying, referencing, assessing and revisiting learning goals, standards-based grading, KWL, anticipation guide, setting classroom and individual goals, PDSA (plan-do-study-act)

Generating and Testing Hypotheses

(Yields a 23 percentile gain)

A deductive approach (using a general rule to make a prediction) works best. Students should clearly explain their hypotheses and conclusions.

Problem solving, historical investigation, project based learning, experimental inquiry, decision making, anticipation guide, advance organizers, learning quests

Cues, Questions, and Advance Organizers

(yields a 22 percentile gain)

Students can use what they already know about a topic to enhance further learning. These tools should be highly analytical, should focus on what is important, and most effective if presented before a learning experience.

Read around the text, skimming, guiding questions before each lesson, graphic organizers, think alouds, inferencing, predicting, drawing conclusions, skim and scan, foldabales, Word Walls, ABC vocabulary, CODE, word spiral, TIP (term, information, picture), request



Classroom Instruction that Works:Research Based Strategies for Increasing Student Achievement- Robert Marzano

Kagan Cooperative Learning Strategies- Dr. Spencer Kagan

How to Teach Academic Vocabulary-Dr. Sharon Faber

Thoughtful Education: Tools for Promoting Active, in Depth Learning

Total Participation Techniques- Persida and William Himmele

Project Based Learning- William Bender

Classroom Assessment for Learning (CASL)- Chappuis, Stiggins, Arter

The Strategic Teacher- Silver snd Strong

Charlotte Danielson Framework for Teaching and Teachscape

Jim Shipley Systems Training